The Expectancy Theory suggested by Victor Vroom at 1964 investigates human behaviours in the office setting using a very simple equation. The concept states that a person 's behaviours or operation of a particular task is directly correlated to exactly what the individual expects the result to be. When a person has reason to feel that their expectations will be accomplished, then that will have a beneficial impact on their behaviour and functionality.
The whole concept is outlined in a very simple equation:
Motivation Force = Expectancy × Instrumentality × Valence
Expectancy reiterates into a worker 's perception that their functionality of a job will cause certain desirable and anticipated effects. That is, generally, according to previous experiences- if the workers expectations were met or not met under comparable conditions before. The worker also has to be given reason to think they have some control over the outcome of their job. When a person doesn’t have any effect on the earnings, he or she will be motivated to do well. Likewise if the target set is too hard, anticipation levels will be reduced and so will the motivation to do well.
Instrumentality suggests to this belief and certyty the worker will be given a reward for doing a job well. The reward may be a marketing a pay increase or just appreciation and recognition for doing work well or the prospect for greater duties and tasks. If workers aren’t rewarded for doing well, the motivation behind doing this will be quite low. Instrumentality relies greatly on trust between the company and worker. The worker ought to be able to expect the company to reward him or her as promised after finishing a job successfully. Again, past encounters and a certain level of control over the output play significant roles in keeping a high degree of Instrumentality.
Valence reiterates into a individual's private targets and the value they put on the benefits that are given and promised to them. When somebody is rewarded with a boost that’s too small for these, or even a promotion which isn’t great enough for them, then that has a negative influence on the 'valence'.
The Expectancy Theory clearly says that functionality in a professional setting will be directly associated with the anticipated accomplishment of this job. If managers want to elevate the performance levels, they could do so by making a reward system that’s fair and appealing. Workers should be encouraged to aim higher and catch every chance they could learn and better themselves. The amount of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with workers can be decided by regular communication with themthrough meetings and individual interviews or queries and self-reports. The benefit system and the sorts of targets and opportunities which are given to personnel should be routinely evaluated and tweaked when required.
It’s apparent from the Expectancy Theory Equation that when the value of some one of those 3 variables (Expectancy, Instrumentality of Valency) is zero, then the Motivation Factor is going to be zero. All of three-factors should, therefore, be held in mind and frequently assessed so as to keep workers motivated.